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SAT考试之语法中的错位修饰如何修饰

2015-10-16 11:36

来源:新东方网整理

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  有些句子看似语法结构没有大问题,但是从句意修饰来看,则有歧义或者存在谬论。就像生活一样,看似波澜不惊,平淡无奇,可总会发生些意想不到的事,只看其一面,却不想其还深深隐藏着未曾谈刺到的另一面——不想到合适的办法便会手足无措;这些题目也一样,不知其所以然,失分之后也会懊恼不已。让我们通过以下真题和练习来剖析其本质:

  1. 2010.1 / S6. 2

  The chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools during an interview with a local news reporter.

  (A) The chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools during an interview with a local news reporter.

  (B) The chair of the school board announced that two new elementary schools were planned to be built during an interview with a local news reporter.

  (C) The chair of the school board, during an interview with a local news reporter, announced a plan building two new elementary schools.

  (D) During an interview with a local news reporter, the chair of the school board announcing a plan to build two new elementary schools.

  (E) During an interview with a local news reporter, the chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools.

  这道题目的A选项(即NO ERROR选项)从我们常见的出发点比如时态,主谓,搭配,或者简洁方面来看,似乎没有问题,以致于同学在仓促的考试时间中不假思索地选择它。当然也有同学考虑到B选项用被动语态违背了SAT语法通常情况下的简洁原则 ,C选项则是犯了plan doing的搭配错误,而D选项是整个句子缺乏动词(Sentence fragment), 而E选项似乎和A选项没什么差别,只是换了下顺序而已。但是恰恰是这顺序的区别能够帮助我们发现问题。细心的同学则会注意到,其实A选项的表达方式是有歧义的,可以理解为:校董主席宣布在和当地记者见面的时候建两个学校。这个从逻辑上来看当然是有误的,两个学校岂能在开会的瞬时就能建成?因此必须将时间状态提前,句子的意思才够恰当:在和当地记者的见面会上,校董主席宣布计划将建两座新学校。正确选项为E.

  2. 2011. 1/ S10. 1

  When I asked which of the children was his daughter, he pointed to a little girl feeding a duck in a blue dress.

  (A) feeding a duck in a blue dress

  (B) feeding a duck and was in a blue dress

  (C) feeding a duck, she was in a blue dress

  (D) in a blue dress who was feeding a duck

  (E) in a blue dress, she was feeding a duck

  当同学们看见这句的题干(a duck in a blue dress),不禁会哈哈大笑起来,试想鸭子穿着一件蓝裙子,岂不是喧宾夺主了?因此我们可以轻易发现正确选项为D,解释为:他指出那个穿着蓝裙子正在喂鸭子的小女孩儿是他的女儿。原题中的in a blue dress放错位置了,引起逻辑的谬误。值得解释的是,B选项表达麻烦,而且连词前后的动词不平行,C和E分别都是RUN-ON SENTENCE,因此都是错误的。

  3. 2009.1/ S 10. 10

  When we were cleaning the garage, my sister and I found the old soccer ball in a dark corner we used to play with when we were young.

  (A) the old soccer ball in a dark corner we used to play with when were young.

  (B) in a dark corner from when we were young the old soccer ball we played with

  (C) in a dark corner the old soccer ball we used to play with when we were young

  (D) the old soccer ball in a dark corner, we used to play with it when we were young

  (E) the old soccer ball, having played with it when we were young, in a dark corner

  有了前两题的经验,我们不难发现,原题题干中的错误了吧,句子的原意不难理解,应为,当我们清理车库的时候,我的姐姐和我在角落里发现了我们儿时玩的足球。但是原句的错位修饰(corner played)导致了句意变成了“我们儿时玩的角落”(play with corner),试想角落要怎么去玩呢?实在谬以千里。正确答案为C选项,补充一下,B和E句子结构混乱罗嗦,主谓逻辑不分,完全违背SAT语法的规则;而D是RUN-ON SENTENCE,考试的时候这类选项应快速跳过,直奔核心选项。

  4. 2008.1/ S7. 3

  Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old movie stars did when perched on the back of his head.

  (A) Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old movie stars did when perched on the back of his head.

  (B) Chad wore his hat perched on the back of his head, just as his favorite old movie stars did.

  (C) Chad’s favorite old movie stars wore their hat perched on the back of their heads, Chad did too.

  (D) Perched on the back of his head, Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old move stars did.

  (E) Just as his favorite old movie stars did, perching their hats on the backs of their head, as did Chad.

  这题的关键点在于perch这个动作的逻辑主语是谁。Perch 有“栖息于,坐落”的意思,这里即为简单的“置于”的意思。原句中,perched的逻辑主语为Chad, 即解释为当Chad 戴在他的后脑勺上,人岂能站在自己的头上?同学们不禁又笑了起来。我们自然得知,应该是帽子戴在头上,perched之前修饰的应该是hat, 符合此要求的只有B选项(wore his hat perched on the back of his head). C选项则是RUN-ON SENTENCE, D选项犯了和A选项同样的错误,E选项完全是病句,主谓不清。

  5. 06.5 /S6. 9

  Professor Brand, who enjoys welcoming international students to her home on Thanksgiving, served the traditional turkey dressed in Pilgrim clothing.

  (A) served the traditional turkey dressed in Pilgrim clothing

  (B) Served the traditional turkey, dressing in Pilgrim clothing

  (C) Serving the traditional turkey and dressed in Pilgrim clothing

  (D) Dressed in Pilgrim clothing to serve the traditional turkey

  (E) Dressed in Pilgrim clothing and the traditional turkey was served

  原句的意思再次让我们哑然失笑,火鸡怎么穿上了朝圣服装了呢?和我们之前提到的“鸭子穿着蓝裙子”出题思路如出一辙,修饰错了位。一般而言,穿衣服的主语是人,即文中的Professor Brand, 他在感恩节穿着香客服欢迎各国学生,为他们端上火鸡(serve在此处表示“提供,端上”,而并非为火鸡服务)。因此正确选项为D. B选项的dressing用法错误,应为dressed, C选项没有动词,E选项引入被动态,前后不工整。

  通过上述“错位修饰”的真题分析,相信同学以后遇到类似题目不会再步入出题者的陷阱。要记住No garden without its weeds, 看似正确的语法题,其实玄机最深。有道是“不畏浮云遮望眼,只缘身在最高层。”多练习多思考,对真题多总结,自然能发现很多过人之处。

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